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    铅玻璃对于辐射有哪些作用?
    来源:http://www.jnlzsb.com 发布时间:2020-01-13

      电子束辐射生物学、人体细胞、组织、体液,如材料相互作用,引起物质电离的原子或分子,所以一些大分子结构可以直接伤害身体,如蛋白质分子链断裂,断裂的RNA或DNA,摧毁一些对代谢酶有重要意义,等等,甚至可以直接损伤细胞结构。此外,射线可以电离体内广泛存在的水分子,形成一些自由基,通过这些自由基的间接作用来损害机体。
      Electron beam radiation biology, human cells, tissues, body fluids, such as material interaction, causes ionization of atoms or molecules, so some macromolecular structures can directly damage the body, such as protein molecular chain breaks, broken RNA or DNA, destroy some of the important significance for metabolic enzymes, and so on, and even directly damage the cell structure. In addition, the rays can ionize the water molecules widely existing in the body to form some free radicals, and damage the body through the indirect action of these free radicals.
      辐射损伤的发病机制与其他疾病相同。致病因素作用于机体后,不仅会引起分子水平和细胞水平的改变,还会产生一系列的次生作用,更终导致器官水平的障碍甚至整体水平的改变。临床实践中可能出现辐射损伤的体征和症状。
      The pathogenesis of radiation injury is the same as other diseases. After the pathogenic factors act on the body, they will not only cause the change of molecular level and cell level, but also produce a series of secondary effects, which eventually lead to the disorder of organ level or even the change of overall level. Signs and symptoms of radiation injury may appear in clinical practice.
      保护用铅玻璃是一种非晶态透明保护材料,常含有大量的B20。不同密度的铅玻璃(3.7-6.2g/cm’)可根据铅含量制作。随着含铅玻璃密度的增加,可以更有效地屏蔽d和p辐射,并保护含铅玻璃在(1-2)X1020中子/cm’辐照后不会发生-s9的回滑。此时,硅酸盐玻璃和射流玻璃仍处于非晶态。
      Lead glass for protection is an amorphous transparent protective material, which often contains a lot of B20. Different density lead glass (3.7-6.2g / cm ') can be made according to the lead content. With the increase of the density of leaded glass, it can shield D and P radiation more effectively, and protect the leaded glass from - S9 back slip after (1-2) x1020 neutron / cm 'irradiation. At this time, silicate glass and jet glass are still in amorphous state.
      玻璃在热处理过程中也会发生脱釉,但其性能与中子辐照不同。中子辐照时,防护用铅玻璃的密度降低。辐照后(8-16)x101。中子/平方厘米,下降了1.5%。用2X10z—中子/CMZ辐照后,铅玻璃的导热系数降低38[60,6 x]。
      In the process of heat treatment, the glass will also be unglazed, but its performance is different from that of neutron irradiation. Under neutron irradiation, the density of lead glass for protection decreased. After irradiation (8-16) X101. Neutrons per square centimeter, down 1.5%. After irradiation with 2x10z neutron / CMZ, the thermal conductivity of lead glass decreased by 38 [60,6 x].
    射线防护器材
      当d照射的吸收剂量达到1MGy时,水银灯照射后辐照着色几乎完全消失。重复照射1MGy后,光密度高于次照射后。·在吸收剂量为5X10aGy之前,防护用铅玻璃的光密度变化与吸收剂量呈指数关系,然后呈线性关系。辐照后,铅硼、铅铝硼和铅铝硅玻璃的吸收带为825t.tm(1.5eV),这可能与玻璃结构中的pb2+和B原子有关。
      When the absorbed dose of D irradiation reaches 1mgy, the irradiation colouring of mercury lamp almost disappears. After repeated irradiation of 1mgy, the optical density was higher than that after the first irradiation. ·Before the absorption dose of 5x10agy, the change of optical density of lead glass for protection has an exponential relationship with the absorption dose, and then a linear relationship. After irradiation, the absorption bands of Pb-B, pb-al-b and pb-al-si glasses are 825t.tm (1.5ev), which may be related to the Pb2 + and B atoms in the glass structure.
      对人体细胞的损伤,于个体本身,会导致躯体效应。生殖细胞的损伤会影响受照个体的后代,并产生遗传效应。当单个或少量细胞受到辐射(主要是染色体畸变、基因突变等)的破坏时,就会发生随机效应。当辐射损伤或破坏大量细胞时,就会发生非随机效应。在辐射损伤的发展过程中,身体的反应起着更为重要的作用,首先取决于神经系统的作用,尤其是较高的神经活动,其次取决于体液的调节作用。因此,高等动物的疾病不能归因于简单或孤立的过程,这涉及到非常复杂的过程。
      Damage to human cells, limited to the individual itself, can lead to somatic effects. The damage of germ cells will affect the offspring of the irradiated individuals and produce genetic effects. When a single or a small number of cells are damaged by radiation (mainly chromosome aberrations, gene mutations, etc.), random effects will occur. When radiation damages or destroys a large number of cells, non random effects will occur. In the development of radiation injury, the body's response plays a more important role. First, it depends on the role of the nervous system, especially the higher nerve activity, and second, it depends on the regulation of body fluids. Therefore, diseases of higher animals can not be attributed to simple or isolated processes, which involve very complex processes.

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