Nowadays, in radiation departments, chemical plants and other places with large radiation, lead plate is their necessary product. Generally, shielding protection and distance protection are two principles. Shielding protection refers to the use of substances with high atomic number. Here we often use lead plates or substances containing lead as barriers to absorb unnecessary X-ray. Distance protection refers to the use of the principle that X-ray exposure is inversely proportional to the square of distance to reduce the exposure by increasing the distance between X-ray source and human body. Generally, there are two types of X-ray from the X-ray tube to the human body: primary ray and secondary ray. Secondary ray occurs in the process of primary ray penetrating other substances, and its energy is smaller than primary ray, so it has a greater impact. Usually, X-ray tube shell, light shield and diaphragm, filter plate, lead glass behind screen, lead screen, lead rubber apron, lead gloves and walls are used for shielding protection. It is a simple but effective protective measure to increase the distance between human body and X-ray source for distance protection.
There are two kinds of most effective radiation protection materials: one is lead plate, the other is barium sulfate.
Lead plate refers to the plate rolled with metal lead. Lead plate has strong corrosion resistance, acid and alkali resistance, acid environment construction, medical radiation protection, X-ray room, CT room radiation protection, aggravation, sound insulation and many other aspects. What is the principle of radiation protection of lead plate?
1. The penetration is weak, a piece of paper can be blocked; the lead plate can be completely blocked, and the protection of α radiation should not be ingested by mistake, so as to contaminate the skin.
2. The line has medium strong penetration. The general lead plate can block most of the rays, but usually a layer of lower atomic number barrier is added to protect the β ray to avoid bremsstrahlung.
3. The line is generated with α, β, and has strong penetrability. A certain thickness of lead plate can block a certain proportion of intensity of γ ray, and the radioactive intensity decreases exponentially with the thickness of lead plate, which can not be completely blocked in theory.