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    射线防护要注意的几个重点
    来源:http://www.jnlzsb.com 发布时间:2019-04-12

    X线穿透人体将产生一定的生物效应。若接触的X线量过多,超越允许曝射量,就可能产生放射反响,以至产生一定水平的放射损伤。但是,如X线曝射量在允许范围内,普通影响极小。人们不用由于辐射而回绝必要的X光和CT检查,更不用为此连医院的放射科的区域都不敢进。
    X-ray penetration through the human body will produce certain biological effects. If the X-ray exposure is excessive and exceeds the allowable exposure, the radiation response may occur and a certain level of radiation damage may occur. However, if the X-ray exposure is within the allowable range, the general effect is minimal. People don't have to reject the necessary X-ray and CT examinations because of radiation, let alone dare not enter the radiation section of the hospital.
    能够采取屏蔽防护和间隔防护准绳。屏蔽防护是指运用原子序数较高的物质,常用铅或含铅的物质,作为屏障以吸收不用要的x线。间隔防护是指应用x线曝射量与间隔平方成反比这一原理,经过增加x线源与人体间间隔以减少曝射量。
    It can adopt shielding protection and interval protection criteria. Shielding protection refers to the use of substances with high atomic number, commonly lead or lead-containing substances, as a barrier to absorb unnecessary x-rays. Interval protection refers to the application of the principle that the amount of X-ray exposure is inversely proportional to the square of the interval to reduce the amount of exposure by increasing the interval between the X-ray source and the human body.
    从x线管抵达人体的x线,有原发射线和继发射线两类,继发射线是原发射线映照穿透其他物质过程中发作的,其能量较原发射线小,便影响较大。通常采用x线管壳、遮光筒和光圈、滤过板、荧屏后铅玻璃、铅屏、铅橡皮围裙、铅手套以及墙壁等,停止屏蔽防护。增加人体与x线源的间隔以停止间隔防护,是简易的防护措施。
    There are two kinds of X-rays from the X-ray tube to the human body: the primary ray and the secondary ray. The secondary ray is produced in the process of the primary ray mapping penetrating other substances, and its energy is smaller than the primary ray, so its influence is greater. Usually, X-ray tube shell, light shield and aperture, filter board, lead glass behind screen, lead screen, lead rubber apron, lead gloves and walls are used to stop shielding and protection. Increasing the interval between human body and X-ray source to stop interval protection is a simple protection measure.
    1、X线机的固有防护:X线机的固有平安防护性能是X线防护的最重要环节。球管管套、遮光器应不漏射线,窗口装有铝滤过板,有用线束进入患者皮肤处的空气映照量率应小于6R/min。特别是用床上球管透视时,X线球管及其附件如有辐射线走漏,工作人员及患者将遭到直接辐射。
    1. The inherent protection of X-ray machine: The inherent safety protection performance of X-ray machine is the most important link of X-ray protection. The tube sleeve and shader should not leak rays. The window should be equipped with an aluminium filter plate. The air reflection rate of the useful wire harness entering the skin of the patient should be less than 6R/min. Especially when the X-ray tube and its accessories are fluoroscopy in bed, workers and patients will be exposed to direct radiation if radiation leakage occurs.
    2、时间防护:尽量缩短X线的辐射时间。在介动手术前要拟订严厉的操作程序,理解患者的有关材料,尽量减少不用要的曝光。术中操作的累计曝光时间不应超越30min,优化最佳投照条件,防止反复映照。
    射线防护器材
    2. Time protection: shorten the radiation time of X-ray as far as possible. Before the operation, strict procedures should be drawn up to understand the patient's relevant materials and minimize unnecessary exposure. The cumulative exposure time during operation should not exceed 30 minutes. Optimum projection conditions should be optimized to prevent repeated exposure.
    3、间隔防护:应用增加术者与辐射源(即球管焦点)和散射体(即受检查)的间隔,减少术者所受辐射剂量,间隔每增加1倍,辐射剂量减少3/4,透视曝光时除术者及主要助手,其别人员应远离,避开X线辐射源。
    3. Interval protection: To increase the interval between the operator and the radiation source (i.e. the focus of the spherical tube) and the scatterer (i.e. being examined) and to reduce the radiation dose to the operator, the radiation dose will be reduced by 3/4 for every doubling of the interval. During fluoroscopy exposure, the operator and the main assistant should stay away from the X-ray radiation source.
    4、屏蔽防护:在射线源与工作人员之间设置屏蔽,减少或消弭射线的辐射,假如屏蔽、铅衣、铅围裙、铅帽、铅眼镜、铅手套等。
    4. Shielding protection: shielding between radiation source and staff to reduce or eliminate radiation, if shielding, lead jacket, lead apron, lead cap, lead glasses, lead gloves, etc.
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    Thank you for reading and watching. The wonderful content of this article comes from: radiation protection equipment, we will have more wonderful content to continue to show you. For more details, please click: http://www.jnlzsb.com. Thank you for your support!