射线防护的种类以及性能
    2018-10-10 11:46:15  文章来源:http://www.jnlzsb.com

    射线防护材料由射线吸收物质和载体材料所构成,射线防护材料包括:金属材料,通用的建筑材料,软质材料,透明材料,中子防护材料,下面给大家一一来介绍具体有哪些。
    Radiation protection materials are composed of radiation absorbing materials and carrier materials. Radiation protection materials include: metal materials, general building materials, soft materials, transparent materials, neutron protection materials. What are the specific materials?
    金属材料:如铅、铁、钨、铜等,原子序数高,密度大,防护性能好
    Metallic materials: such as lead, iron, tungsten, copper, etc., with high atomic number, large density and good protective properties.
    通用的建筑材料,如混凝土、砖、土、硫酸钡、射线防护板等
    General building materials such as concrete, brick, earth, barium sulfate, radiation protection board, etc.
    软质防护材料:铅橡胶、钨橡胶等
    Soft protective materials: lead rubber, tungsten rubber, etc.
    透明防护材料:铅玻璃、有机铅玻璃、水等
    Transparent protective materials: lead glass, organic lead glass, water, etc.
    中子防护材料:石蜡、水、聚乙烯、木板、硼砂等富含氢元素的材料
    Neutron protective materials: materials rich in hydrogen, such as paraffin, water, polyethylene, wood, borax, etc.
    从上面介绍的防护材料来看,大部份材料都是以铅为主,具体的产品比如铅门、铅玻璃等,这是因为同其它金属材料比,铅具有很强的防腐蚀,耐酸碱,易加工,价格便宜等优点,从防护的角度看铅的原子序数大,密度大,能起到更好的射线屏蔽和阻挡的效果。所以选用铅做为射线防护是非常理想的材料,唯一不足的是铅本身对人体是有害的。
    From the above mentioned protective materials, most of the materials are mainly lead, specific products such as lead doors, lead glass, etc., this is because compared with other metal materials, lead has a strong corrosion resistance, acid and alkali resistance, easy processing, low price and other advantages, from the protection point of view of lead atomic number, density, energy. It has better effect of shielding and blocking. Therefore, the use of lead as a radiation protection material is very ideal, the only shortcoming is that lead itself is harmful to human body.

    射线防护器材
    射线防护材料的防护性能
    Protective properties of radiation protection materials
    射线防护材料由射线吸收物质和载体材料所构成,其中所述射线吸收物质包括混合镧系元素、钨、铋、锡和/或锑,所述镧系元素是指由天然矿石中提取的,可以是氧化物或其形式化合物,所述钨、铋、锡和/或锑可以是其金属粉末,也可以是其它形式化合物,所述载体材料可以是天然橡胶或人工橡胶、热塑性弹性体,也可以是塑料。
    A radiation protection material is composed of a radiation absorbing material and a carrier material, wherein the radiation absorbing material includes a mixture of lanthanide elements, tungsten, bismuth, tin and/or antimony, the lanthanide elements are extracted from natural ores and may be oxides or their form compounds, and the tungsten, bismuth, tin and/or antimony may be metal powders thereof. The carrier material can be either natural rubber or artificial rubber, thermoplastic elastomer, or plastic.
    本发明提供的用于射线防护材料的屏蔽材料,具有防护性能优良、重量轻、无毒、无污染、成本低等优点,其不仅克服了使用单一元素钡或铋带来的缺陷,且克服了镧系元素加钨技术中对低能和高能X射线吸收时铅当量降低的缺陷,使无铅防护产品适用的管电压范围更宽。射线防护材料的复合屏蔽材料,该复合屏蔽材料克服了上述缺陷,所以射线防护服具有防护性能优良、重量轻、无毒、无污染、成本低等优点,就可以放心穿戴了。
    The shielding material provided by the present invention for X-ray protection material has the advantages of excellent protection performance, light weight, non-toxicity, non-pollution and low cost. It not only overcomes the defects caused by the use of single element barium or bismuth, but also overcomes the shortcomings of lead equivalent reduction in low-energy and high-energy X-ray absorption in the lanthanide-tungsten technology. The tube voltage range of lead-free protective products is wider. The composite shielding material of the radiation protection material overcomes the above defects, so the radiation protection clothing has the advantages of excellent protection performance, light weight, non-toxic, non-polluting, low cost and so on, can be safely worn.
    射线吸收物质对X射线的吸收主要依赖于X射线光子与射线吸收物质的核外电子,尤其是最里层的K层电子的光电作用,即光子与核外电子作用时将其全部能量转移给电子,光子自身则消失,吸收了光子能量后的电子摆脱原子核的束缚,变成自由电子。当自由电子返回基态时,其剩余能量或以热辐射,或以对机体损伤作用已大为降低的次级辐射形式积放,从而达到防护X射线的目的。
    The absorption of X-ray by X-ray absorbing materials mainly depends on the photoelectric interaction between X-ray photons and the extranuclear electrons of the X-ray absorbing materials, especially the innermost K-layer electrons, that is, when photons interact with extranuclear electrons, all their energy is transferred to electrons, and the photons themselves disappear. The electrons that absorb the photon energy are free from the nucleus. Bound into free electrons. When the free electrons return to the ground state, their residual energy is accumulated in the form of thermal radiation or secondary radiation, which has greatly reduced the damage to the body, so as to protect the X-ray.